How to Use and Fade Prompts

Posted on October 9, 2017 · Posted in Parent Tips

Visual Prompt

A visual prompt includes some type of cue to the student how to respond (in addition to natural cues) such as pictures, text, photos, or videos. Visual schedules show students where to do. A written list of what to do when you are done with your activity is a visual prompt. Visual prompts can also be positional such as putting the correct item or required items to complete a task closer to the student. For example, if mom says go to the bathroom and brush your teeth, she may put the toothbrush and toothpaste out on the sink.

Verbal Prompts

Verbal prompting can take many forms and even within this type of prompt there are ways to increase independence. Verbal prompting involves providing some type of verbal language to cause the correct response. A direct verbal prompt gives the exact answer. For example, if you hold out a flashcard of the letter F and say, “say F” that is a direct verbal prompt. An indirect verbal prompt gives a hint without giving the full response. For example, when teaching how to water plants, after your student fills up the watering can, you say, “where should we go next?”

Gestural Prompts

Gestural prompting means giving some type of gesture or movement that shows the student what to do. This could be pointing, nodding, making eye contact, or looking at a specific area or item. For example, if it is your student’s turn to participate in the conversation or answer a question from a peer you might make eye contact with them and nod.

Modeling

Modeling involves showing the student the correct response. If you tell your student to clap his hands, you clap your hands.

Partial Physical Prompt

Partial physical prompts mean you are still touching the student but instead you are providing minimal physical guidance. You may touch the student’s elbow to begin the movement but more of the movement is lead by the student. For example, if you want a student to touch red, you move their elbow in the direction of the red card.

Full Physical Prompt

Full physical prompts mean you are physically moving your student’s hand or body to complete the response. This is sometimes referred to as hand over hand prompting. If you want your student to pick up a toothbrush, you move their hand to the toothbrush and guide through process of moving toothbrush off the table.

Fading Prompts

Errorless Learning (Most to Least Prompting)

You can utilize prompting in an errorless learning procedure. Errorless learning can be extremely effective if done correctly. Errorless learning ensures that skills or concepts are performed correctly by providing a prompt immediately. This approach uses most to least prompting so you start with the most invasive prompts and move to less invasive prompts. The idea behind errorless learning is that students never have a chance to get stuck in a chain of incorrect responses. In traditional trial and error teaching, children learn from their mistakes. However error correction can be done incorrectly and students may not have enough chances to engage in the appropriate response and receive reinforcement.

When using errorless learning, provide the prompt directly after the natural or teaching cue. So if you are working on identifying blue, you would say, “touch blue” and then immediately move the student’s hand to the blue card. Then you provide praise and a reinforcer. Continue with this method for several trials/days. Then fade the prompts. Move to partial physical prompts and move the student’s elbow towards the blue card. Then model pointing to the blue card. Then point to the blue card. The prompt fading is essential in using errorless learning correctly. If you do no fade prompts quickly and appropriately students may become prompt dependent.

Least to Most Prompting

You can also utilize prompting through least to most on the hierarchy list. In this procedure, you start with the least invasive prompts and move down the list until the student can accomplish the task. For example, if you are teaching to put blocks in a bin. You would start with natural cue of the blocks next to the bin. Then you would add a visual cue and show a visual of a hand putting blocks in the bin. If the student still didn’t put the blocks in, you would say, “put the blocks in.” If the student still didn’t put the blocks in you would point to the blocks and the bin. You would keep moving down the list until the student did accomplish the task. Then you would provide praise and keep working with that prompt. If the student put the blocks in the bin when you provided the gestural prompt, you would keep using the gestural prompt and then begin fading the prompts from there.

This procedure allows the learner to emit their highest level of independence and gives you a baseline for where his skill level is. Again, the prompt fading is key here as staying with one type of prompt will cause prompt dependence.

What does independent mean?

It’s important to note that there are always naturally occurring cues that occur before a behavior. It’s important not to confuse those with prompts. We want our students to greet someone when a new person enters the room. A new person entering the room is the natural cue to say hello. A teacher saying, “say hi” is a prompt. The goal is for our students to respond to the naturally occurring cues to engage in the behaviors we are teaching them. That is independence.

*Adapted from: www.theautismhelper.com